The US government enters into bilateral income tax treaties with numerous countries in order to encourage international trade and investment, promote cross-border cooperation, stimulate information exchange and reduce double or excessive taxation. French enterprises in the states may apply reduced rates or be exempted from the requirement to withhold tax at source. Tax rate imposed on dividends paid by US corporations in general, dividends qualifying for direct dividend rate and interest paid by US obligors in general can be reduced from 30% to 15%, 5% and 0% respectively.